Types of Houses

December 21st, 2012

Here is a guide of different types of houses available. You will learn which house is ideal for you in your current situation. Which house will suit your needs and preferences? The good and not so good pointers are listed below.


Condominiums are fairly easy to live in. All of the exterior maintenance is taken care of in the monthly payments. You won’t ever need to worry about needing to clean out the backyard, or perhaps a pool. This type of home is perfect for people who are not mobile and also people such as single mothers. If you are a first time buyer of a home than this will be ideal. A two bedroom condo is also quite cheap and can cost anything from $80,000.

A Family Home

If you are a growing family than this is the type of home you will need. These homes are ideal if you have young ones as they are spacious and also have a yard. You will also benefit from the simple saleability of this home. Big family homes tend to be quite sought after so they will get snatched up on the market quite easily. The only downfall is that these homes need a lot of taking care of and take time to pay for.

A Mobile Home

Lots of people tend to purchase mobile homes mostly because they are inexpensive. People pay as much as $10,000 minimum for a mobile home, they are great if you are on a tight budget.  These are very affordable and you can live comfortably within them without worrying about not being able to pay the rent on time. If you are a first time house buyer than this is ideal for you. You can make a lot of profit also, if you choose to sell at any time. The only disadvantage is there are not as robust as a standard home therefore they need additional attention.

A House In Town

Although buying a home near a town may be expensive it does hold its perks. Purchasing a property near a town centre seems to cost a lot due to how historic the home is. The big advantage is that you can walk easily into town. All amenities are close by and you don’t need to worry about your child’s education.

A House You Can Completely Renovate

There are two main reasons to move into a building which needs a lot of work done on it. Houses that require a lot of maintenance usually can be bought for an affordable cost. You can save a lot of money by purchasing a home that needs fixing up. Additionally you can also purchase one of these houses to make a good profit. The law states that you can live in the home for two years tax free. If you enjoy construction work than you could really benefit from investing in one these properties.


Cabins are very affordable and could be ideal if you are a business person and move around a lot.  If you are more of a sea lover than you could benefit from living in a houseboat. These are affordable and won’t be too costly. You could also look into purchasing a piece of land so you can place an RV on it. This is affordable and you could make a huge profit if you choose to sell the land afterwards. There are many types of houses, so you should really consider meticulously what you need.

Sophia Eagan works for an Edinburgh estate agents and shares her knowledge of property and real estate with others.

Types of Coping Mechanism

July 10th, 2012

There are many types of coping mechanisms that people typically resort to using when dealing with stress or hardship.  There are many unexpected, unpredictable and unforeseen circumstances that people face in their lives that cause difficulty, stress and hardship and people use coping mechanisms in order to reduce or avoid these stresses.  Some coping mechanisms are positive while many are negative and can become habitual and sub-conscious.  People implement coping strategies differently and the strategies can be either conscious or unconscious responses to certain stimuli (e.g. other people or situations).


Asking yourself consciously “What coping mechanisms or strategies do I use?” can be a first step in identifying poor habits and moving towards resolution.  Professional help can be of great assistance in bring out what mechanisms are being implemented and changing to need and better strategies.


In psychology, “coping mechanism” has been defined by Susan Folkman and Richard Lazarus as constantly changing cognitive and behavioral efforts to manage specific external and/or internal demands that are appraised as taxing or exceeding the resources of the person.


8 major types of coping mechanisms groupings are listed below.  There are many others and various names have been given to the different approaches.


Adaptive coping mechanism

This type of coping mechanism involves positive action rather than falling into destructive patterns.  The approach used is to understand the underlying issues and adjust to the new environment or situation.


Attack coping mechanism

Attack is typically a negative type of coping mechanism. In this strategy the person is trying guard himself against negative behavior of others through attack.  In effect they attempt to avoid their own discomfort through attacking or blaming others.


Avoidance coping mechanism

This is a more passive method of coping because the person simply avoids facing uncomfortable situations.  It often means avoiding or withdrawing physically and mentally from the situation including keeping away from the people or situations they dislike.  An example is changing the topic of conversation when discussions are causing tension.  Although seemingly benign, this approach can be very limiting.  Heavy drinking and substance abuse can be avoidance.


Behavioral coping mechanism

Behavioral coping strategies can also be conscious and positive but can be a natural tendency.  In this method, a person will adapt how he behaves in changing situations.  The person will usually read other people, assess the situation and then behave accordingly in order to avoid negative outcomes.


Cognitive coping mechanism

Cognitive mechanism is another type of harmless coping mechanism yet it may have negative outcome to the person doing this method.  In this strategy, the person changes the way he thinks by converting unwanted thoughts into something pleasant.  At first, this strategy might be helpful but eventually this will lead the person into fantasizing.  As a result, the person will be separated from reality and he will not be able to recognize the real issue.  Later, it will be difficult to the person to begin to understand what is happening around him.


Conversion coping mechanism

This type of coping mechanism will give a negative result because the mental conflict of the person is expressed through physical symptoms.  This is a subconscious effect to a person in which symptoms from mild to severe may occur such as headache, seizure or paralysis.  The manifestation of a symptom communicates what the person if feeling inside.  The nervous twitch is an example.


Defense coping mechanism

When a stressful situation occurs, the mind immediately increases its capacity in solving the problem or it seeks a rational ways of escaping bad situations.  People using the defense coping mechanism use this creative energy to create false but potentially credible justification what happened or denying what occurred.  This is a damaging pattern to fall into.


Self-Harm coping mechanism

Self-harm as a strategy is often a call for help manifested by harming or attacking oneself physically or psychologically.  Thought of suicide also comes along in this type of coping mechanism.  It also includes psychological problem that shifted into physical and subconscious symptoms such as heart problem.

Types of Depression

July 5th, 2012

There several types of depression. Learn these types of depression and distinguish them from normal sadness.


Sadness, loneliness, grief, feeling of disadvantage, loss, despair, helplessness, sorrow, rage and indifference are a part of all our lives at some point.  When people experience these normal feelings of unhappiness, it is not depression but part of the ups and downs we all experience.   After days or weeks, most of the people are able to recover from such state of mind.  However, when the symptoms of depression last for months, it may be clinical depression as distinguished from normal sadness.  Depression in the field of psychology is referred to as mental illness in which a person experiences deep, unshakable sadness, lack of energy and diminished interest in nearly all activities.  Some may also have a loss of appetite and weight or a weight gain.

The term “I’m Depressed” is often used to describe the feeling of temporary sadness, loneliness, or blues, but people suffering from clinical depression have difficulty in concentrating and making decisions and even in moderate cases, clinical depression is debilitating and can lead to suicidal thoughts.  Most psychologists believed that depression results from an interaction between stressful life events and a person’s biological and psychological vulnerabilities.

If you suspect that you have depression of any kind, then you should seek help.

Major Depression

People with major depression need to seek help because major depression can dramatically impair their ability to function in social situations and at work.  These people often have feelings of despair, extreme sadness, hopelessness, and worthlessness, as well as thoughts of committing suicide.



People who have this depressive condition, have low self-esteem and concentrate poorly most of the time often over a period of years.  However, their symptoms are milder than in major depression.  These people are simply sad, blue or melancholic and usually unaware that they have this type of depression and have learned to live with it every day.  Some people with dysthymia experience occasional episodes of major depression.


Postpartum Depression

Some women experience an episode of Postpartum depression (PPD) or post-natal depression (PND) after having a baby.  Depressive symptoms usually begin within four weeks of giving birth and can vary in intensity and duration.  It is sometimes assumed that postpartum depression is caused by a lack of vitamins. Some studies also show that the main cause of this type of depression is the significant changes in a woman’s hormones during pregnancy.  Symptoms include sadness, fatigue, changes in sleeping and eating patterns, reduced libido, crying episodes, anxiety, and irritability.


Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD)

SAD is a condition in which people experience episodes of depression that typically begin each fall (Autumn) or winter and lift in the spring due to fewer hours of daylight.  Research shows that depression more frequently affects people living in low-light conditions (eg people living in the extreme north).  Increased exposure to light often helps people with seasonal affective disorder, but not those with other forms of depression.


Psychotic Mental Depression (PMD)

Psychotic depression occurs when a severe depressive illness patient has a co-existing form of psychosis.  People with this type of depression may experience psychotic symptoms, such as delusions or false beliefs and hallucinations or false sensory perceptions.  They usually have longer hospital stays, and after leaving, they are more likely to be moody and unhappy.  They are also more likely to attempt suicide.


Bipolar Disorder

This type of depression is where a person’s mood swings back and forth between depression and mania. Bipolar disorder is also called manic-depressive illness.  When manic, people with bipolar disorder feel intensely elated, self-important, energetic, and irritable.  When depressed, they experience painful sadness, negative thinking and indifference to things that used to bring them happiness.  Ancestry seems to have a strong influence on whether the person will develop bipolar disorder.  Personal or work-related stress can trigger a manic episode, but this usually occurs in people with a genetic vulnerability.  Other factors which are factors in other forms of depression such as prenatal development, childhood experiences and social conditions seem to have relatively little influence in triggering bipolar disorder.


Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD)

This type of depression is the severe form of premenstrual syndrome or PMS.  Women with premenstrual dysphoric disorder often feel insecure, anxious, irritable, angry, and other symptoms occurring predominantly during the 2 weeks preceding menstration.  These symptoms are similar to PMS, the difference being that PMDD is so severe that it interferes with a woman’s social and occupational function.  PMDD disrupts the woman’s life and interferes with the usual activities and relationships with others.


Situational Depression

This symptom of this type of depression develops in response to a specific stressful situation or event.  Psychologists agree that stressful experiences can trigger depression in people who are predisposed to the illness.  For example, the death of a loved one may trigger depression.  Psychologists usually distinguish true depression from grief, a normal process of mourning a loved one who has died.


If you suspect that you have depression of any kind, then you should seek help.

Types of iPod

June 24th, 2012


This article guides you to identify what types of iPod you have or may want to buy.

Apple Incorporated invented a media player that caused a dramatic market shift and the virtual disappearance of devices such as the Walkman and Discman. The iPod is a portable media player from Apple which was launched in November of 2001.  The different types of iPod can be used as an external data storage device because it is capable of storing media in its internal hard drive. The storage capacity of iPod is ranges from 2GB up to 160 GB.

Common features among the iPod are:

  • High quality Music
  • Digital Music
  • Portable
  • User friendly interface
  • Small and compact in size
  • Can play various file formats like MP3, MP4, WAV etc.
  • Media libraries are available
  • Can be connected with computers for downloading
  • Rechargable


iPod Classic

The iPod Classic was released over a series of six generations.  The first generation was released on October of 2001 and the sixth version launched in September 2007 with 160GB of storage.  All generations use a 1.8-inch (46 mm) hard drive for storage.  Also, all iPod classics have five buttons and the generation, since the 4th gen, has the buttons integrated into the click wheel- a design that provides an uncluttered, minimalist interface.  The circuitry of this revolutionary design contains multiple momentary button switches.  It is available in silver or black.


iPod Mini

The iPod mini was released in February 2004 which eventually became one of the most popular electronic products on the market, with consumers often unable to find a retailer with the product in stock.  It only had two generations and was discontinued on September 7, 2005, replaced by the iPod Nano line.  The main difference between the two generations lay in their storage and battery capacities.  The iPod mini uses touch-sensitive scroll wheel and it was designed as mechanical switches beneath the wheel itself, instead of the four touch buttons located above the wheel.  This click the wheel design is where the user physically pushed the edge of the wheel inward over one of the four labels.  The iPod Mini used Microdrive hard drives (CompactFlash II) made by Hitachi and Seagate.


iPod Nano

The first generation iPod Nano was introduced as a replacement for iPod mini with a color screen for picture viewing.  It was launched on September 7, 2005 and uses flash memory for storage.  The iPod Nano has gone through six generations since its introduction.  The sixth generation iPod Nano supports FM radio, a pedometer, and a 39.1-millimetre (1.54 in) square 240×240 display with a multitouch interface.


iPod Shuffle

The iPod shuffle is the smallest model of the Apple’s iPod family and was the first to use flash memory.  It was made public on January 2005 during the Macworld Conference and Expo.  The iPod shuffle went through four generations.  The first iPod shuffle was the new entry-level model using flash memory and had no screen with the battery life of 12 hours.  The second generation has a smaller clip designed with anodized aluminum casing that is available in a wide variety of colors.  The third generation has smaller design with controls relocated to right ear bud cable, features Voice Over that was initially sold concurrently with the second generation 1 GB model.  The fourth generation of iPod shuffle was redesigned returning the play/track/volume buttons from the second generation and power/shuffle mode switch from the first generation and adding a button for Voice Over.


iPod Touch

The iPod is commonly referred to as the iTouch released on September 2007.  It is designed by Apple Incorporated as a portable media player, personal digital assistant, handheld game console, and Wi-Fi mobile device.  The iPod touch is the first multi-touch graphical user interface and has first wireless access to iTunes Store and App Store among the iPod line-up.  The iPod Touch went through four generations.  The first iPod Touch is referred as The Beat Goes On with Wi-Fi and a multi-touch interface that features Safari web browser and wireless access to the iTunes Store and YouTube.  The second generation iPod Touch features new tapered chrome back with Nike functionality, volume buttons, built-in speaker added and Bluetooth support.  The third generation of iPod touch has voice control support, Voice Over, and bundled remote earphones with microphone.  The fourth generation iPod touch was released on September 2010 that has front-facing camera for Face Time, retina display without an IPS screen, support for recording 720p video and 960 x 720 still photos via a back camera, Apple’s A4 chip, a built-in microphone, and a 3-axis gyroscope. The display is glossier than in previous generations.


Other references related to types of iPods, include:

Types of Apple Computers

Types of iPhone

Types of iPad

Types of Anemia

June 19th, 2012

The different types of anemia are produced by a variety of underlying causes but all have the same effect. 

Anemia is a blood condition in which there are too few red blood cells or the red blood cells are deficient in hemoglobin, resulting in poor health.  Common causes include a lack of dietary iron, heavy blood loss, or the production of too few red blood cells due to disorders such as leukemia.  Anemia is the most common blood disorder.  There are several types of anemia that are produced by a variety of ways due to various underlying causes.


Iron Deficiency Anemia

The most common type of anemia is iron deficiency.  The body needs iron to produce hemoglobin which is necessary for red blood cell production.  Low iron levels impair the body’s ability to produce hemoglobin, which is a primary component of red blood cells.  The body needs iron during rapid growth in childhood, pregnancy or when there is choric bleeding.  Menstruating women also needs additional of iron.


Vitamin B-12 Deficiency Anemia

Vitamin B-12 deficiency is also known as pernicious anemia.   Vitamin B-12 is also essential in hemoglobin production.  This vitamin is normally found in meats and vegetables and is essential for the maturation of red blood cells.  People with pernicious anemia are unable to produce intrinsic factor, a substance that allows the small intestine to absorb vitamin B12.  The result is B-12 deficiency because of the gradual development of the symptoms; this condition may not be immediately recognized.  Those with thyroid disease or diabetes mellitus are at increased risk for this type of anemia.  This inability may be caused by a genetic disorder, Crohn’s disease, an immune system disorder that causes chronic inflammation of the digestive tract, or surgery that removes the part of the stomach that normally produces intrinsic factor.


Folic Acid Anemia

A lack of folic acid, another one of the B vitamins, can also lead to anemia.  Leafy vegetables such as spinach and turnip greens, dried beans and peas, avocados, bananas, oranges, and asparagus provide us with natural sources for this vitamin.  Folate is essential for the body since it is involved in the synthesis, repair, and normal functioning of DNA.  Folic acid is also necessary for the production and maintenance of new cells.  This is important during periods of rapid cell division and growth that occurs during pregnancy and in the development of young children.  Folic acid deficiency is also common among alcoholics.

See also Pregnancy Provoked Illnesses


Aplastic Anemia

This is one of the deadliest and most rare forms of anemia.  When the bone marrow, the tissue that produces new red blood cells, becomes injured, it will lead to aplastic anemia.   Damage to the bone marrow is caused by infection, cancer, radiation or exposure to toxic chemicals.  This condition is usually found among adolescents and young adults.  Symptoms may include bleeding in the body’s mucous membrane, a moist lining in the body passages of mammals that contains mucus-secreting cells and is open directly or indirectly to the external environment.


Sickle-cell Anemia

Sickle cell anemia is also known as Hemoglobin S disease.  This type of anemia is a genetic disorder which means that this can be inherited.  This is common among people with African ancestry.  People with sickle-cell have an abnormal form of hemoglobin that distorts red blood cells to a shape resembling a sickle, a crescent-shaped cutting blade used in agriculture.  Because of its shape, these sickle-cells cannot easily pass through the tiny blood vessels, thus preventing oxygen in the blood from the reaching organs and tissues.  Persons with this disease often suffer from pain in the joints and bones. Infections and heart failure can also occur.


Hemolytic Anemia

Hemolytic anemia is caused by premature destruction of red blood cells.  Like the sickle-cell anemia, hemolytic anemia can also be inherited. It can also be acquired because of toxic materials such as lead, copper, and benzene can also cause the destruction of red blood cells.  It occurs when antibodies of the immune system damage the red blood cells. Blood transfusions may be necessary for some people with this kind of anemia.



Thalassemia is inherited type of anemia caused by the defects in the genes producing hemoglobin, the protein that transports oxygen in the blood.  It is most common in people in Southeast Asia, in China and those people of Mediterranean descent. Thalassemia can lead to fatigue to organ damage. There are two types or Thalassemia: the alpha thalassemia and beta thalassemia.  Alpha thalassemia is mild to moderate in symptoms and might not need treatment while to beta thalassemia which is more severe usually needs transfusions or bone marrow transplants.


Sideroblastic Anemia

Sideroblastic anemia is a blood disorder in which the body has enough iron but is unable to use it to make hemoglobin, which carries oxygen in the blood.  As a result, iron accumulates in the mitochondria of red blood cells, giving a ringed appearance to the nucleus.  There are three types of sideroblastic anemia: inherited, acquired, and idiopathic. The signs and symptoms of iron overload can range from mild to severe, and include fatigue, breathing difficulties, and weakness.  Enlargement of the liver or spleen may also occur.  In severe cases, the increased levels of iron in the blood may lead to heart disease, liver damage, and kidney failure.


See other discussions related to types of anemia:

Types of Hemorrhoids


Types of Yeast Infection

June 18th, 2012

There are various types of yeast infection that affects both men, women and children. Learn more about these types of yeast infection.

Most types of yeast infection is caused by a fungal organism also known as Candidiasis which is a common cause of vaginitis in women.  In fact, several types of yeast infection can be found in men and in children too.  However women are more prone to yeast infection than men due to their internal sexual anatomy.  For most part, yeast growth is controlled by the body’s immune system.  However, when an imbalance occurs, the moist warm parts around the vagina can become a breeding ground for Candida which can be life threatening.  Yeast growth can occur also in the mouth, as well as the skin and even inside the stomach and the intestines.


Oral Thrush

It is the most common yeast infection among children due to transmission of the organism during delivery or through breast-feeding and if the mother has yeast infection.  Oral yeast infections are caused by an organism called Monilla Albicans.  These are the white patches in the mouth area which can be seen on the inside of the cheek, on the hard and soft palate, tough, gums and lips.  Oral thrush also includes gastrointestinal yeast infections and intestinal yeast infections.  It should be noted that oral thrush can both be caused by yeast infection or other reasons.



This type of yeast infection occurs when the oral thrush spreads to the esophagus. This infection makes it very painful and hard to swallow food and water.


Skin Yeast Infection

Skin Yeast Infection typicallt causes itching, rashes, cuts and sores around the groin area, underarms, under the breast, lower abdomen, under the folds of the buttocks, between fingers and toe nail are one of the symptoms of skin yeast infection.


Systemic Candidiasis

Systemic yeast infections are yeast infections in the bloodstream, liver and urinary tract when microscopic fungi evolve from its normal state.  This infection is observed in patients suffering from AIDS or cancer since these groups of people have weakened immune system.   It affects the whole body which can be fatal, if not treated.


Vaginal Yeast Infection

When itchiness, pain and discharge in vagina are present, it can be caused by Monilial vaginitis or vaginal candidiasis.  Vaginal yeast infection is often caused by use of birth control pills, pregnancy, diabetes, unprotected sex, menstruation, hormonal changes and weak immune system.


Penile Yeast Infection

This type of yeast infection rarely occurs in men however is very painful.  Men can acquire penile yeast infection when they have a very weak immune system and are having unprotected sex with their partners who have vaginal yeast infection.  Diabetic men are also more prone to yeast infection as the sugar in urine helps the growth of yeast.



See other topic relates to types of yeast infection:

Types of Allergic Reactions

Types of Allergens

Types of iPad

June 18th, 2012

The types of iPad have variety of version available such as the WiFi only, WiFi + 3G or 4G  and black or white case color.

The iPad, created and marketed by Apple Incorporated, is a line of tablet or mobile computers which is larger than smartphones and weighs less than a laptop computer.  The various types iPad is a highly effective personal digital assistant (PDA) and features a large flat touch screen.  It is operated by touching the screen rather than using a physical keyboard.  The iPad is excellent at viewing and manipulating audio-visual media including books, periodicals, movies, music, games, apps and web content.  The iPad has the same operating system and applications used on Apple iPod Touch and iPhone.


iPad 1

The iPad one was released on March of 2010. The iPad first generation attracted a lot of consumers because of its beautiful screen, light weight, terrific web browsing, longer battery life and Bluetooth accessory support.  The iPad doesn’t have camera, which was a criticism at the time of its release.  However, the first generation of iPad was a great platform for web browsing, emails, video viewing and eBook reading.


iPad 2

The second generation of iPad, the iPad 2, was made public in March 2011 it is 330% thinner than the original model and has a faster dual core Apple A5 processor.  The iPad 2 has a three-axis gyroscope, front and back camera which supports facetime video calling application and 10-hour battery life.  The other groundbreaking features include

  • 1024-by-768-pixel resolution at 132 pixels per inch (ppi)
  • Tap to control exposure for video or stills
  • Photo and video geotagging over Wi-Fi
  • Back camera: Video recording, HD (720p) up to 30 frames per second with audio; still camera with 5x digital zoom
  • Front camera: Video recording, VGA up to 30 frames per second with audio; VGA-quality still camera


iPad 3

The third generation iPad 3 was released by Apple CEO, Tim Cook, on March of 2012. There are two types of the iPad 3, the Wi-Fi only and the Wi-Fi and 4G connectivity with a black and white version of each plus a 16 GB, 32 GB or 64 GB internal memory.  The iPad 3 had special features and various improvements including

  • HD quality 2048 by 1536 pixel Retina Display screen which have over 50% more pixel compared to the usual 1920 by 1080 pixel HD TV
  • 5 mega-pixel camera
  • Faster dual core A5X processor
  • 4G enabled


Other products related to types of iPad are as follows:

Types of iPod

Types of Macintosh

Types of Apple Computer

Types of iPhone



Types of Pollution

June 17th, 2012

Types of Pollution includes air pollution, light pollution, littering, noise pollution, soil contamination, radioactive contamination, thermal pollution, visual pollution, and water pollution.  There are also many other types of pollution which are less known or relate to specific fields of endeavor such as pollution affecting certain scientific experiments.


What is Pollution?

Pollution refers to the contamination of the Earth’s natural environment with materials that are not naturally present or not naturally present in those quantities and may harm the function of ecosystem, human health and quality of life.  Some environmental types of pollution are followed by natural disasters but most is a result of human activities.


Air pollution

Air pollution causes damage through acid rain, global warming, smog, and ozone depletion. Pollution in the air that we breathe can negatively affect our body.  Air pollution is the contamination of the Earth’s atmosphere.  One of the greatest challenges caused by air pollution is global warming, where Earth’s temperature rises because heat is trapped by the buildup of certain atmospheric gases such as carbon dioxide (CO2).  Increase of CO2 in the atmosphere has existed since humans began to use fire for agriculture, heating and cooking and today, factories, transportation and agriculture are major contributors especially in the urban zones.

Sources of Air Pollution

  • Cars, trucks, jet airplanes and other combustion engine vehicles cause air pollution.  The exhaust from these contains carbon monoxide, nitrous oxide and gaseous oxide.
  • Factories, office buildings, homes and power-generating stations burn fossil fuels which create smog that destroys plants, damages buildings and creates oxidation on iron.
  • Petroleum refineries release hydrocarbons and various particulates that pollute the air.
  • Power lines that are not insulated and are high voltage.
  • Pesticides used to kill indoor and outdoor pests, insecticides used to kill insects and herbicides use to kill weeds all cause air pollution.
  • Radioactive fallout causes air pollution from the nuclear energy dispersed, which is a dust.
  • Dust from fertilizers used to help plants grow causes air pollution
  • Toxic fumes from new carpet, paint and/or cleaning chemicals that are used indoors.
  • Mining causes air pollution by releasing a variety of particles.


Indoor Air Pollution

Indoor air pollution is often an unrecognized form of polution that is inside the homes and buildings where people spend most of their time.

Sources of indoor pollutants

  • Tobacco smoke
  • Chemicals released from synthetic carpets and furniture, pesticides, and household cleaners
  • Materials used in the building such as asbestos, formaldehyde and lead
  • Construction materials
  • Heating, air-conditioning devices, and cooking apparatuses etc.
  • Furniture
  • Coatings (wall paint, varnish, floors etc.)
  • Maintenance and cleaning products (detergents, pesticides etc.)
  • Biological contaminants like mold and pollen
  • Gases such as radon (an invisible radioactive gas that enters homes from the ground in some regions) and carbon monoxide

The effects of indoor air pollution can be more harmful than outside air pollution because people spend as much as 90 percent of their time living, working, and playing indoors.  Indoor air quality problems can result to respiratory problems and dermal and mucus irritation.  It is advisable to make sure that the houses and buildings are well-ventilated to minimize air pollutants and also focus on building materials used to ensure indoor air pollution is kept to a minimum.


Outdoor Air Pollution

Outdoor Air pollution is commonly known as ambient air pollution.    Smog, a thick dirty fog which is a mixture of fog and smoke or other airborne pollutants, is an example or large scale outdoor pollution.  As the smog ages and reacts with oxygen, organic and sulfuric acids condense as droplets, increasing the haze.  Another type of smog is calls photochemical smog.  This type of smog is caused by combustion in car, truck and airplane engines which produce nitrogen oxides and release hydrocarbons from unburned fuels.  The sunlight combined nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbons turns oxygen into ozone, an agent that attacks rubber, injures plants, and irritates lungs.

Sources of Outdoor Air Pollution

  • Combustion of fossil fuels such as domestic heating, power generation anfd motor vehicles
  • Industrial processes
  • Agricultural processes
  • Waste incineration
  • Natural process like thunderstorms and volcanoes
  • Emission of the solid waste disposal
  • Treatment of industrial effluent and domestic residues
  • Chemical incidents and spills


Acid Rain

When air pollutants reach the atmosphere, sulfur and nitrogen oxides are converted into acids that mix with rain.  This acid rain can have a serious effect on the environment.  If acid rain falls in the lakes and on forests, it damages plants by destroying their leaves, it poisons soil and it changes the chemistry of lakes and streams.  In effect it can lead to the death of fish and plants, and damage entire ecosystems.  Eventually the contaminated lakes and forests may become lifeless.


Water Pollution

Water pollution is the contamination of water bodies that occur when pollutants are discharged directly or indirectly into water bodies without adequate treatment to remove harmful compounds.  Water contamination can affect all the plants and species in the water as well as human.  Sewage, industrial wastes, and agricultural chemicals such as fertilizers and pesticides are the main causes of water pollution.

Common Water Pollutants

  • Sewage and waste water
  • Marine dumping
  • Industrial waste
  • Radioactive waste
  • Oil pollution
  • Underground storage leakage
  • Atmospheric deposition
  • Eutrophication – the process by which a body of water becomes rich in dissolved nutrients from fertilizers or sewage, thereby encouraging the growth and decomposition of oxygen-depleting plant life and resulting in harm to other organisms was not found in the English Dictionary


Marine Pollution

Marine pollution is the result of the entry of the pollutants into the ocean.  The sources of these pollutants are land-based such as chemicals, particles, wastes, noise that came from the residence, large scale productions and agriculture.  Marine pollutants inlcude

  • Land-based sources
  • Oil spills
  • Untreated sewage
  • Ballast water discharge
  • Heavy siltation
  • Eutrophication (nutrient enrichment)
  • Invasive species
  • Persistent organic pollutants (POP’s)
  • Heavy metals from mine tailings and other sources
  • Acidification
  • Deep sea mining
  • Radioactive substances
  • Marine litter
  • Overfishing
  • Destruction of coastal
  • Marine habitats


Waterway Pollution

Waterway pollution refers to the contamination that enters a waterway (eg river or stream) from an identifiable source such as pipe or ditch.


Sewage Pollution

At home all the water that goes down your sinks, toilets and showers ends up in the sewage system.  These waters are called sewage waters and when this water is drained of into rivers without treatment it can lead into spreading diseases.  Aside from improper handling of waste water, sewage pollutant gets into our local creeks or rivers when it escapes the sewage system.  This can happen when private or public sewer lines are cracked, pipes are blocked by tree roots or other material, sewage pumping stations fail and sewage overflows cause discharges from designed overflows.  These pipeline problems can contaminate the water is harmful to humans. It can cause diarrhea and skin problems.  When large quantity of sewage water is drained off into the rivers, it will slow down the process of dilution of water constituents and will stagnates rivers.


Ground Water Pollution

Ground water pollution is the interaction between groundwater and surface water.  Groundwater aquifers, a layer of permeable rock, sand, or gravel through which ground water flows, containing enough water to supply wells and springs, are susceptible to contamination from sources, such as toxic plumes and radionuclide, that may not directly affect surface water bodies.


Thermal Pollution

Thermal pollution is the changes of the water quality by some process that changes the water temperature.  The change in temperature of a body of water are often caused by human intervention such as the use of water as a coolant by power plant and industrial manufacturers or the release of very cold water from the reservoirs into warmer rivers.  It results in a change in the physical properties of water which can kill fish and affects ecosystem composition underwater.


Light Pollution

Light pollution includes where over-illumination of city streets and other lighting result in a reduced ability to observe the night sky.  Light pollution is of primary concern to astronomers but also affects people living close to brightly lit stadiums, etc.


Noise Pollution

Noise pollution is an extreme noise that causes imbalance of human and animal life.  Noise pollution may be created by a machine (such airplanes) animals or even by individuals.


Soil Pollution

Soil pollution is soil contamination through chemicals.  It usually occurs through the buildup of toxic chemical compounds, salts, pathogens (disease-causing organisms), or radioactive materials that can affect plant and animal life.  The contaminated soil may directly affect human health through direct contact with soil, via inhaling of the contaminated soil which has become air-born or through ingestion of the pollutant which has found its way into the food chain through growing vegetables in the contaminated soil or allowing animals to graze on the contaminated land.

Sources of soil pollution

  • Pesticide
  • Fertilizers
  • Acid Rain
  • Garbage
  • Industrial wastes
  • Radioactive substance
  • Human excreta
  • Mining gas and petroleum
  • Overcrowded landfills
  • Deforestation
  • Construction debris
  • Oil and antifreeze leaking


Radioactive Pollution

Radioactive pollution is the presence of radioactive substances in the environment.   It includes the pollution of air, water and soils.  The environmental radiation can be from different sources and can be natural or manmade.

There are two primary sources of radioactivity.  These are the background radiation, also known as the natural radiation and the manmade radiation.  When cosmic rays reach the surface of the earth from space, it includes radioactive elements which are considered as radioactive pollutants such as radium, uranium, thorium, radon, potassium and carbon that occurs in the rock, soil and water.  On the other hand, the natural radiations are also known as background radiation.  Man made radiation include the mining and refining of uranium, plutonium and thorium for the use in weapons and nuclear power plants.


Visual Pollution

Visual pollution refers to any unattractive things to look at.  Commonly known as an ‘eye-sore’, visual pollution can affect the well-being of communities.


Electromagnetic Pollution

Electromagnetic Magnetic pollutants (also termed electro-smog) is caused by power lines, power tools, electric stoves, heaters, boilers, freezers and television sets when in use and may extend quite a distance around the line or appliance.   Long-term exposure may aggravate existing health problems or diseases and may lead to lack of energy or fatigue, irritability, aggression, hyperactivity, sleep disorders and emotional instability.  Chronic exposure to high level of electromagnetic radiation may lead to disabling symptoms such as convulsions, memory problems and depression.  In order to reduce vitality drainage effect when working with electric equipment, it has been suggested to hold hands under running water from time to time and to have shower in the evening.


Coal Pollution

Coal is the biggest source of mercury contamination in our air, and it is one of the worst offenders for producing the greenhouse gases that cause global warming.  The coal-fired power plants are the largest sources of mercury pollution.  Airborne mercury emitted by these plants can be deposited anywhere from the smokestack sources.  These substances are a potent neurotoxin that humans and other organisms readily absorb.  Methyl-mercury easily travels up the aquatic food chain, accumulating at higher concentrations at each level.  Larger predator species contain the most mercury, which is then passed on to those who eat them.  Humans are exposed to mercury primarily by eating contaminated fish.  Fetuses, infants, and young children are most at risk for mercury damage to their nervous systems.  Mercury exposure damages cardiovascular, immune, and reproductive systems.   Chronic low-level exposure pre-natally, or in the early years of life, can delay development and hamper performance in tests of attention, fine motor skills, language, visual spatial skills, and verbal memory.  At high concentrations, mercury can cause mental retardation, cerebral palsy, deafness, blindness, and even death.



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Types of Hydrotherapy

June 10th, 2012

Several types of hydrotherapy are used for conventional and alternative treatment. Learn about the types of hydrotherapy and their health benefit.


What is Hydrotherapy?

Hydrotherapy was originally termed Hydropathy and is a therapy treatment option that uses water to cure diseases and ailments.  The various types of hydrotherapy treatments include saunas, steam baths, foot baths, sitz baths and the application of cold and hot water compresses.  Hydrotherapy also encompasses the internal use of water and is sometimes combined with massage therapy.  Physiotherapy treatment may also use water and exercise.


Historical Development

Hydrotherapy was used by the ancient Egyptian, Greek and Roman civilizations.  Egyptian royalty bathed with essential oils and flowers, while Romans had communal public baths for their citizens.  China and Japan also practiced hydrotherapy with their geothermal waters found right through the country.  However, during the middle age, the practice was forgotten.  It was only during 19th century that Father Sebastian Kneipp, a Bavarian monk, revived the practice.  He is now considered the father of hydrotherapy.  He believed that disease could be cured by using water to eliminate waste from the body.


Hydrotherapy Treatment


Sitz bath

The Sitz bath is a bathtub shaped like a chair in which the bather sits.  It is good for:

  • Hemorrhoids
  • Premenstrual syndrome and other menstrual problems
  • Cystitis
  • Polyps


Warm water baths

The person will usually soak in the warm water and curative elements are added such as Epsom salt, mineral mud, aromatherapy oils, ginger, moor mud and dead-sea salt.  This type of hydrotherapy bath is relaxing and causes blood vessels to dilate.  The heat removes wastes from body tissues.



The sauna is a traditional steam bath that originated in Finland.  It causes the body to perspire due to the intense heat generated by the steam bath.  As a result, the skin is cleansed and muscles relax.  Other beneficial effects are improved body circulation, reduced tension and stress.



Hot and cold therapy is one of the best methods to relieve any kind of pain including muscle, ligament and joint pain.  The application of heat to any part of the body is a hot compress.  It can relieve pain of primary dysmenorrhea (cramping pain occurring before or during menstruation).  It can be applied in many kinds or forms such as hot water, hot towel heating pads and deep heating rubs.  All of these tools can help in applying hot compress to the affected parts of the body.  In contrast, cold compress can be done by wrapping an ice in a towel.  Cold compresses can reduce both swelling and pain in the affected part of the body and are also helpful is relieving muscle strain.



There are various types of wraps, one type is used for colds, bronchitis, skin disorders, infection, and muscle pain.  While lying down, a person is covered with a cold wet cotton sheet.  The person is then covered with dry towels and finally blankets.  The body warms up in response and dries to wet sheets.


Wet sock treatment

Plain cotton socks are soaked in cold water.  Then the cold socks are taken out from the cold water and be worn overnight.  This method can increase circulation levels of white blood cells, gives a good night sleep, and helps break up congestion in the head and chest.  It is beneficial for people with:

  • Sore throat,
  • Ear infections,
  • Headaches,
  • Migraines,
  • Nasal congestion,
  • Upper respiratory infections,
  • Coughs,
  • Bronchitis
  • Sinus infections


Hot fomentation

This therapy is intended to raise the temperature of the tissues. It can be applied locally or to the whole body.  Its purpose is to enhance and increase circulation, decrease congestion and encourage elimination of toxic material from the body.  This process is used for acute conditions such as chest colds and coughs.  It seems to relieve symptoms but also decrease the length of the illness.


Foot Bath

There are various foot baths.  One example helps relieve stuffy head colds.  A tub of hot water is taken as hot as the patient can cope with.  A lemon is then cut and squashed into the floor of the tub.  The patient places their feet in the tub and the heat and aroma combine to draw down the cold out of the head.  Keep the patient warm and ensure they get a good night’s rest.


See other related topic to Types of Hydrotherapy:

Types of Therapeutic Baths


Types of Hemorrhoids

June 8th, 2012

Major types of hemorrhoids are external and internal. These types of hemorrhoids may get worse into prolapsed, thrombrose and strangulated.

Hemorrhoids are swollen and inflamed veins around the anus or in the lower rectum.  Also called piles, most types of hemorrhoids often itch and can causes considerable pain in the rectum and may also bleed.  These symptoms usually occur after having a bowel movement, especially after passing a hard stool.  Bleeding over a long period of time may cause anemia.  Hemorrhoids are also linked with habitual constipation and with pregnancy.  There also contributory factors like prolonged sitting, mental stress, age and inadequate intake of fiber.  The treatment for hemorrhoid includes soothing and relaxing measures such as keep the stool soft, hot sitz bath and following a high-fiber diet.  Medications like suppositories and astringent ointments as well as surgery, hemorrhoid banding procedure, sclerotherapy and also acupuncture for hemorrhoids are included in the many treatment options.


External Hemorrhoids

External Hemorrhoids are located near the anal opening which is covered by sensitive skin.  A person suffering from external hemorrhoids can feel a hard, sensitive lump that may bleeds when torn.  This is caused by swollen external hemorrhoidal veins.  They can be very painful especially when blood clots are formed.  Oftentimes, the swollen veins are itchy and may bleed easily because of straining, rubbing and irritation from defecation.


Internal Hemorrhoids

When too much pressure is applied on the internal hemorrhoidal veins usually during a stool movement, it can result in internal hemorrhoids.  Unlike external hemorrhoid, where a lump can be seen at the anal opening, internal hemorrhoids cannot be seen, but itchiness or bright-red blood when going to the toilet after having a bowel movement can be a tell-tale sign.  Pain is not as common with internal hemorrhoids, unless an infection occurs or a blood clot forms.


Prolapsed Hemorrhoid

A prolapsed Hemorrhoid is where an internal hemorrhoid has come through the anal opening.  Prolapsed Hemorrhoids usually protrude from the anus and cause discomfort such as bleeding, pain, a feeling of incomplete defecation and itching. The severity of prolapsed hemorrhoids goes through different stages or grades.  Medically they are classified as follows:

  1. No prolapse
  2. If the internal hemorrhoids pop-out from the anus during defecation but spontaneously pull back in.
  3. If they are pushed out and require the patient to manually push them back.
  4. When the internal hemorrhoids is out and cannot be pushed back, either by itself or manually, into the anal canal.


Thrombosed Hemorrhoid

When blood no longer flows through the vein due to a blood clot, it often causes severe pain which is called a thrombosed hemorrhoid.  Pain results when the clot and surrounding edema cause rapid swelling of skin which may lasts weeks depending on the severity.  Because of the nature of the this type hemorrhoid, difficulty producing bowel movements and maintaining hygiene are common, which can in time further aggravate the condition.


Strangulated Hemorrhoid

A strangulated hemorrhoid is an internal hemorrhoid that has prolapsed through the anus sufficiently to stop the blood flow through the vein.  Thrombosis will likely follow and these can be dangerous so medical advice should be sought as soon as possible.


Hemorrhoids during pregnancy and after birth

Any of the types of Hemorrhoids above may occur during pregnancy when additional strains are placed on the body.  Particular attention should be placed on diet, good sanitation and toilet technique during pregnancy and after birth in conjunction with your medical specialist.


See other discussions related to types of hemorrhoids:

Types of Anemia

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